ApoE-mediated systemic nanodelivery of granzyme B and CpG for enhanced glioma immunotherapy
The response of malignant glioma to immunotherapy remains gloomy due to its discrete immunological environment and poor brain penetration of immunotherapeutic agents. Here, we disclose that ApoE peptide-mediated systemic nanodelivery of granzyme B (GrB) and CpG ODN co-stimulates enhanced immunotherapy of murine malignant LCPN glioma model. ApoE peptide-functionalized polymersomes encapsulating GrB (ApoE-PS-GrB) could effectively penetrate the blood-brain barrier-mimicking endothelial cell monolayer in vitro and further be taken up by LCPN cells, inducing strong immunogenic cell death (ICD). The co-administration of ApoE-PS-GrB and ApoE-PS-CpG in orthotopic LCPN glioma-bearing mice co-stimulated cytokine production, maturation of dendritic cells (DCs), infiltration of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) while reduction of regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg) and M2 phenotype macrophages in the tumor microenvironment, leading to greatly delayed tumor progression and significantly prolonged survival time compared with all controls. The ApoE-mediated systemic nanodelivery of GrB and CpG ODN opens a new pathway for potent immunotherapy of malignant glioma.
J.J. Wei, D. Wu, Y. Shao, B.B. Guo, J.J. Jiang, J. Chen, J.P. Zhang, F.H. Meng*, Z.Y. Zhong*, ApoE-mediated systemic nanodelivery of granzyme B and CpG for enhanced glioma immunotherapy, J. Control. Release 2022, 347, 68-77.